9 – “The Urinary Organs.- Their Accidents and their Diseases”

This series contains original watercolours that were used to create woodcut engravings for publication in the chapter ‘The Urinary Organs.- Their Accidents and their Diseases’ of the 1860 Mayhew publication ‘The Illustrated Horse Doctor’.

Terms of Use
This material has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights, and is being made available under the Creative Commons, Public Domain Mark.

10 – “The Skin.- Its Accidents and its Diseases”

This series contains original watercolours that were used to create woodcut engravings for publication in the chapter ‘The Skin.- Its Accidents and its Diseases’ of the 1860 Mayhew publication ‘The Illustrated Horse Doctor’.

Terms of Use
This material has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights, and is being made available under the Creative Commons, Public Domain Mark.

12 – “Limbs.- Their Accidents and their Diseases”

This series contains original watercolours that were used to create woodcut engravings for publication in the chapter ‘Limbs.- Their Accidents and their Diseases’ of the 1860 Mayhew publication ‘The Illustrated Horse Doctor’.

Terms of Use
This material has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights, and is being made available under the Creative Commons, Public Domain Mark.

13 – “The Feet.- Their Accidents and their Diseases”

This series contains original watercolours that were used to create woodcut engravings for publication in the chapter ‘The Feet.- Their Accidents and their Diseases’ of the 1860 Mayhew publication ‘The Illustrated Horse Doctor’.

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This material has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighbouring rights, and is being made available under the Creative Commons, Public Domain Mark.

3 – Additional watercolours

This series contains watercolours that do not have print counterparts in Mayhew’s “Illustrated Horse Doctor” or “Illustrated Horse Management”.

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FS/2/2/2/2/2 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Joint Diseases

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This material is Crown copyright, and contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government License v.3.0.


5/1st R.A

Case 30, No 23

[Annotated ‘Lameness’]


Augt 13th

Sprain to sesamoid[sic] sheath of off hind limb. Extreme lameness and pain. Foment and give Aloes ℨV  – Place in slings

[August] 15

Physic acting – The animal is in great pain – high heeled shoe

[August] 24

Placed in slings – suffering acutely – hot fomentations

Sept 1st

Still in great pain – There must be some very severe injury to this sheath – continue treatment – Removed from slings being badly chafed

Sept 20th

Not a big better and an abcess[sic] has formed at the fetlock, discharging a little thin pus. Fomentations is the only thing which gives relief the animal is losing flesh and considering the length of time he has been ill it is a wonder he has not died of irritative fever

Oct 10th

The animal do not make the least improvement he is constantly holding the limb in the air. The sheath is tense, thickened, hot, painful and another abcess[sic] has formed on the outside of the fetlock, also discharging a little thin pus & synovia.

[October] 23rd

I cannot make out the case, it is wonderful that an animal should for so many weeks suffer such acute pain with no sign of abatement, I believe the sesamoid sheath is ruptured and I will try the counter irritating effect of a blister – Put back in slings and blister the part. The suffering is telling


upon the poor animal who is daily loosing flesh though on full feed, if he were not a young horse I would certainly apply for his destruction.


The blister has acted as yet with no good effect


Still as painful as ever, the limb is held up all day

Nov 20th

I think there is a little improvement, he bears more weight on it and is looking better.

The brush[?] is enormously distended, tense & painful – He has been now in slings a month

[November] 27

Continues to improve

Decr 24th

An abcess[sic] which does not communicate with the brush has formed and burst on the external Surface of the bursa or is about the size of a Rupee. Dress all with dry bran. Stands much better. I am not likely to remain in charge much longer or I would certainly fine the joint as soon as this abcess[sic] has healed.

[Handwriting changes]

1884, 28 Jan

When I saw this animal to day he was going sound. The sheath fetlock is much enlarged but the [iron] should put him right. He is quite fat & plump now.

May 1

saw him again to day, not lame but has small abscess forming occasionally[?] around the pastern. Crow has fired him again & he still remains sound.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


Extract from Record

Case 133, No-111

1st Novb 1882

Wound incised off fore above Fetlock caused while jumping, the perforatus is nearly divided the synovial sac opened dress with Carbolized Bran & syringe every morning for an hour with Carbolized Water.

6th [November]

An abscess has formed in the heel owing to suppuration within the bursa. Continue treatment.

20th [November]

Wound healing well. Continue treatment.

Dec 1st

Nearly healed, a deal of thickening remains & horse

Looseing[sic] condition. Full feed, omit carbolic syringing & the carbolized bran

Jan 1st 1883

Wound healed the thickening is as great as ever would blister but consider it useless, what makes matters worse is the irritable condition of the patient who won’t go in slings & won’t lie quietly but continues hopping round the stall with a high heeled shoe on remove the latter & bring up for casting.

Extract from Register.

No 111 – Chestnut gelding; 4 years old; Australian.

Q/1st B[riga]de R.A

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

[Image – Left] Perforatus [Image – Right] Perforans

Injury to tendon caused by an over reach. Horse belonged  to 2/1 RA no 111

The perforatus was thickened which extended around the joint. The perforatus, cut through, infected. The perforans infected, small portion of example is parts showing that it had become adherent.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/9 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Foot

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1884 Case 83, No 45.

June 10th

Laminitis in all four feet principally the fore ones due to being overworked on first journey the Battery.

Treatment. mash diet apply wet swabs to coronet.

Stand in tank 4 hours daily

[June] 22nd

Better. repeat treatment.

July 14th

I can see no signs of Laminitis about the feet at the present time. I suspect the case must have come on more of congestive than inflammatory. Going fairly sound & sent to duty to see whether any thing develops itself.

Discharged, Relieved.

Case 117, No 45

21st July

Laminitis Chronic. This horse (see case above) went to duty and after one mornings work came back intolerably lame with every symptom of laminitis. There is not much heat in the foot & no constitutional disturbance. I therefore conclude it is more congestive than inflammatory & more chronic than acute.

Stand in foot bath.


The casting committee assembled this day & this animal was brought forward by the O.C. I gave it as my opinion that the lameness would be recurrent & that from the short time I had known the animal it was impossible for me to say that the case was perfectly incurable. Nevertheless, I believe it to be so & the animal an undesirable one to retain for further treatment. There is no alteration in the shape of the feet, no rings round the wall, but the action is most indicative of the disease.




July 24th

This morning the patient was brought out again for my inspection & was found so lame that he could only just progress on the back of the heels with his fore legs right out in front of him, his hind under the body.

Cold water applications & exercise.

Augt 1st

This morning is worse than ever & the animal having been cast, I discharge him off the books.

Discharged, incurable.

Autopsy. I only found in two places, not more than one inch wide any sign of discolouration of the sensitive laminae, they being here scarlet & at their attachment nearly black. The discoloured laminae were not enlarged but were flabby & portions of them remained adherent to the horny wall where this was removed. On examining the navicular bursa of one limb it was found to contain very little synovia. The perforans tendon has eroded as if it has been scraped with a knife. The navicular bone had brown patches on its fibro cartilage on either side of the central ridge. There was no sign of ulceration, but the cartilage was speckled with calcareous deposits. The opposite navicular bursa contained no synovia but was moist, the tendon eroded & discoloured, the fibro-cartilage covering the bone was brown along its lower half & speckled with calcareous deposits: at two small points blood could be seen when the bone was bare.

Remarks. This is a very exceptional case, I believe the whole lameness was due to the diseased navicular bursa, & that the laminitis appearance was post-mortem; yet, during life no one could have seen this patient but would have said that the gait was truly indicative of acute laminitis.

Remarked during life that the feet presented no appearance of laminitis, & as will be seen from my remarks I doubted the diagnosis of my predecessor; yet when the animal came under my observation lame, I felt no doubt in my mind of the correctness of my predecessors views, & diagnosed the case, even in the absence of heat & alteration in the feet as laminitis chronic.

M/2 R.A. M 45 Sex G Age 6


[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


Veterinary Regulations

Death Report

12th Regiment Lancers

Station: Bangalore

Date: 7th July 1883

Troop or Battery: F

Number of Horses: 42

Sex: G

Age: 15

Disease: Laminitis

Date of Admission: 1 Feby

Date of Death: 7 Feby

Record of the Case

Copies from the Record Case Book

Feby 1st

Laminitis. This is another old horse whose life has been worked out of him at the Camp of Exercise, he is off feed, dull, conjunctive dirty red.  Pulse can only be taken with difficulty owing to his being so vicious, the Temperature also cannot be taken on that account. The case is one of extreme exhaustion caused by the killing work they have just had. He won’t feed & nothing can be given him on account of his vice.

[Feby] 2

No change, stiff all over & disinclined to move. Refuses everything.

[Feby] 3

Remains same, nothing can be forced down him

[Feby] 4

Suffering from Laminitis both fore worst is the off gait.

Constitutional symptoms severe, place in heavy shoes


& exercise.

[Feby] 5

Remains same, goes better after exercise, but worse after standing. Feet hot, likes to stand down hill, respirations increased, anxious expression.

[Feby] 6

No better refuses everything & looks much worse constitutionally the exercise causes such pain & distress that I had him kept quiet in a box with cold applications to the feet.

[Feby] 7

I feel sure he has not much longer to live, but he is as vicious as ever lying down all day, so had shoes removed. Respirations increased. Conjunctive dirty red, pulse imperceptible. Died suddenly at 8.30 pm

Autopsy. Mucus membrane of intestines congested. Structure of liver & kidneys broken down, heart filled with clots. Pulmonary & Aortic valves thickened. Superficial vessels filled with clots & decomposition rapid. Laminae of both feet black, thickened particularly at the toe.

Discharged Died.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/2 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Joints

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[Annotated ‘Ostitis[sic]’]

D 47 12RL On opening the muscles there was nothing to be seen but that the muscles were paler than usual & on opening the capsule of the joint the synovia was in excess & deeply died[sic] with blood, the synovial membrane was thicker than usual but not inflamed. The articular cartilage rather swollen and soft around the circumference of the humerus, but in no wise[?] inflamed or ulcerated, towards the ant: internal part of the articular surface of the scapular there was a slight abrasion, notched like of its circumference, it was smaller than a pea, but the cartilage was swollen & the bone was distinctly felt bare[?] in its centre, it was not inflamed or was there any sign of ulceration. The flexor Brachii[?] at its origin seemed injected & there was a bruise the size of a bean just below its tendon on the outside. The sub scapularis muscle had suffered, it presented the appearance of being severely bruised, ecchymosed through half its length and entire thickness. I could detect no rupture of its fibres, & its insertion was intact. The humerus & Scapular through half their length were congested, the periostium thickened and easily removed leaving the injected bone beneath. More particularly was this the case in certain parts such as near the insertion of the sub scapularis but the outside of the joint had shared in this apparently inflamed process but not to the same extent. There was osteitis of Humerus – see sketch

The history of the case of which the above is the post mortem is that on March 1st this horse collided during competition with a much heavier one, was struck on the near shoulder & knocked over. She fell on her side, but got up & walked to the infirmary with the leg dangling about like a broken one, thrown across the front of its fellow, the elbow being turned out, was placed in slings. When again examined next day when made to move the whole shoulder seemed to come out laterally the elbow turned out & the giving was so great that the animal leant entirely over to that side. I believe the 4th Condyle of humerus is knocked off & with it the attch of Portea Spinatus

March 6 – Blistered and consulted with Brown[?] & he thinks a fracture.

I divided this muscle in a dead limb and produced the deformity.

March 20 –  No better. Shoulder still out or seems to be every time he[sic] moves he can stand fair on limb, but can put no weight, can even make with, has a great knack of crossing his legs both front and rear Placed in slings and tied in. Pitch plaster &c. Placed the off fore on top of rear foot. Kicks the ground constantly. I think[?] from blister – but he does it day and night. Cause on P.M.E The lumbricoides

April 7 – Found with tetanus. Owing I think from chafes in slings.

[Annotated ‘Urine SpGz 1050. Ammonial & phosphates]

[Annotated ‘Lameness’]

Veterinary Regulations

Death Report

Regiment: 12 R Lancers

Station: Bangalore

Date: 8ber 1883

Troop or Battery: D

Number of Horses: 47

Sex: M

Age: 4

Disease: Tetanus

Date of Admission: April 7th 83

Date of Death: April 8th 83

Record of the Case

Copied from the Record Case Book

Case 62 D47


7th April


This horse has been in the sick lines since March 1st with what I considered to be a fracture of the point of shoulders (near) there being extreme lameness & apparently dislocation. He was placed in slings. Lately he was found to be rather chafed round the chest as he was very uneasy and always kicking. This latter was not vice but was too continuous for such a long period not to attract attention


On visiting him this morning he was slightly blowing but feeding. On seeing him ¾ of an hour

later my suspicions were confirmed & I immediately administered, or rather tried to, a purgative. He lost nearly the whole dose. I then gave Carum[?] Indic: Ʒij with Heum Crosonis mxx in a ball. I managed to get this down. Removed to a loose box, & kept perfectly quite[sic], pulse normal, Temp 100o.

6.30pm Worse, the disease at its full height

At 9 am dropped down & died asphyxiated. [Annotated ‘8th’]

Autopsy. All viscera normal, but the stomach & duodenum contained I should say 500 Ascarides many of them over a foot in length, they nearly filled the duodenum

Remarks. Was it the chafe or Ascarides caused the tetanus. My view of the matter is that the chafe produced the mischief. The presence of this enormous number of parasites undoubtedly produced the great nuisance[?] which shewed itself in the continuous kicking there was no fracture of the shoulder, but ordeals[?] of humerus & severe bruising of Sub scapularis muscle

Discharged died

F Smith


Osteitis of Humerus D 47


A section of the head of the humerus of D47. The medulla was exactly the above colour & the cancellous tissue was just as represented. I made no section of the scapular[sic] but I am sure it was the same.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


N fore limb of I/3 horse injured at Kelbol[?]

The limb was an enormous size around the fetlock it was 17” in circumference & around the pastern 12”. There was the mark of an abscess on the outside and centre just above the fetlock. On removing the skin which was thick there was found enormous subcutaneous effusion of liquid and solid serum this was about 1 ½ “ to 2” in thickness. The superficial lymphatics were enlarged and contained coagulated lymph & a superficial abscess on front of fetlock After all this was cleaned away the Ext Pad just above the fetlock was directed downward and found to be slightly adherent to the bone & cut gently[?] the bone could also be felt nodular at this plane[.] On removing it on the joint the Capular opened was found to contain bloody muco-pus with air bubbles. The joint was laid completely open by dividing the later sesamoidal[?] lip and the synovial membrane was found scarlet and maroon extensive dislocation[?] of cartilage in several places varying from a about the size of sixpence to a pin point these were scarlet the cartilage in other places being partly absorbed the inflamed bone shown through black. There was extensive porcellaneous deposits in the joint no synovia. Partial dislocation of the met: found on the suffraginous sesamoid sheath the tendon was softened & adherent to each other & also to the fibro cartilage of sesamoids.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/1 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Liver

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[Annotation “1878” and “The Lucknow Case of Hepatic Abscess”]

Horse A- 95 was a grey mare age 11 years 6 months. V.S Bred & with a deal of Arab Blood her height was 14 hands, 3 inches and she entered the service 19 Nov 1871 joining at New-gony[?] She was naturally very lightly built and of a highly nervous temperment so much so that it was with the greatest difficulty that one could get near her, for the purpose to examine her, she was an exceedingly willing worker always kept in good condition, and was placed in the hard centre of the gun as no one could ride her, her driver was exceedingly fond of her and paid the greatest care and attention to her this will complete her previous history.

She first came under my notice on the 13th May of the present year, when I admitted her into Hospital with simple Fever, an extract from the case book shows that she was dull and off her feed, Pulse full and 60 extremities cold she was ordered bran mashes, & green food with a little simple Febrifuge medicines consisting of Nitric Ether & Carbonate Ammonia on the 17th she remained the same, took very little food & was exceedingly dull, I then ordered Quinine to be given in Ʒi doses night and morning and to attend to her general nursing on the 20th there was a marked improvement and the medicine was continued[.] on the 21st she was discharged cured from that time she was not admitted again untill the 7th Sept and during the period was frequently noticed to be dull and to refuse her food for some little time, this was particularly the case after work however she did her duty cheerfully, on the 6th Sept she was noticed to be off her feed and was admitted as I have said before on the 7th, I was on leave at the time but the Farr. Sergt has described the symptoms to me as being those of Fever combined with derangement of the Liver he was led to this conclusion by the yellowness of the Mucous Membrane and of the Feaces, he


Diagnosed of the case as being one of congesting of the Liver, he accordingly administered 5 grs of Calomel morning and evening and applied a sinapism over the region of the Liver. I sent for Mr Garrett of the 13th Hussars, who ordered a Febrifuge draught consisting

of Aramitic[sic] Spirits Ammonia & Nitric Ether this she had twice a day up to the 24th during of the whole of this time she was exceedingly dull and weak and Mr Garrett expressed himself that she would die, on the 29th I saw her and she presented the following symptoms excessively weak and dull Pulse weak & 50 Respirations slightly accelerated 20 Mucous Membrane pale and very Anemic there was great wasting away[.] Urine of a brownish colour and very offensive, the Faeces were their natural colour and there was nothing to direct any attention to the Liver[.] I tested the urine for both Albuman and Bile but with negative results, I was perfectly at a loss to make out the case and refrained from forming an opinion, on the following day I examined her through the rectum in order to ascertain if I could detect any enlargement of the Kidneys Stone in the Bladder or any Deposits in the Mesentery this was all with negative results, I than[sic] turned my attention to the Chest and carefully Auscultated the Heart and Lungs both where[sic] perfectly healthy the only option that I ventured on given[sic] was, that there was some wasting disease of one or more of the Abdominal Organs whether that disease was Cancer or Melanotic

deposits in the Mesentery I was unable to say, such a thing as Absces[sic] in the Liver never entered into my head, in fact there were no symptoms at that time pointing to the Liver, however I ordered ℨij Sul Iron morning and evening[.] on the 3rd Oct her Feaces where[sic] again reported as being very offensive, I examined both the Urine for Albumen and Bile


but with negative results, the Feaces where dark in colour and had a deal of Mucous in them I attributed the colour to the Iron and lessened the dose to ℨi this 2 days after I entirely discontinued. On the 11th I stopped the Iron and ordered Arsnic[sic] in the form of  Lig Arsinials ℨiiij night and morning this on the 13th seemed to affect the bowels as Dirahoea[sic] was present I accordingly lessened the dose by ℨij and ordered Tinct Opii ℨij to be given with the dose this prevented the Arsnic passing of by the bowels, on the 15th the patient presented such a very Anaemic condition and such atrophy of the muscles of the body that I was anxious to see if in the horse you could tell the position and exact size of the Liver by percussion as can be done in the human subject[.] My object in doing this was not because my attention was directed to the Liver, but simply I had in this patient a good subject for the above experiment. I accordingly percussed the right side and to my surprise found the Liver greatly enlarged, it extended anteroily[sic] as far forward as the 9 rib posteriorly beyond the edges of the false ribs and inferior to the Sternum this I pointed out to the Farr. Sergt who was than present and expressed that opinion to W.V Plomney V.S R.H.A. who was than in the station. On the 16th there was a marked change for the worst the Respirations where ascelterated, Pulse quick and almost imperceptible and there was no doubt in my mind but that she was dying fast. On the 17th & 18th the above symptoms where aggravated the patient walked round the box refused food entirely very anxious expressions, countenance & tremors of the Muscles had commenced; corresponding to Sub Sulsus Tendinum of the human subject, she gradually sunk and died without a struggle at 3 o’clock on the morning of the 19th.


Post Mortem examination made 31/2 hours after death showed Rigormortis well marked Tympanic condition of the Abdomen, on the opening the Abdomen about 2 qts of deep yellow partially Inspissatated Pus escaped together with a quantity of Serum the transfurse[?] Colon and the Auterior extremity of the Caecum where in a state of acute congestion and there Peritoneum covering was inflamed. Adhesions had been thrown out and the right portion of double Colon was attached by recent Adhesions to the side of the chest[?] the Duodinim[sic] was extensively thickened and congisted[sic] the Parietal and Diaphragmatic Peritoneum were inflamed and adhesions and recent Lymph where thrown[?] out.

The Liver presented a mortal appearance was in every part adherent to the Diaphragm and of the posterior of the right lobe had a large cavoty[sic] whoes[sic] walls where thickened in some parts to the extent of 3 or 4 inches in others as thin as writing paper it was this Abscess whose contents had burst into the Abdominal Cavaty[sic] on removing the Liver it was found to weigh 20 lbs and ardly[sic] a square inch in any part of it was healthy, the Hepatic cells where swoolin[sic] & gorged with blood on marking a section there was marked Cirrhosis and in the right lobe alone 7 Absces where found in various stages of development the mottled colour which I have before spoken about was due to a convertion[sic] of Hepatic cells into cheesey material this is at first yellow in colour but gradually softening takes place which always commences in the centre and changes its colour into a white cream like fluid this is puss and is the first commencement of Hipatic Abscess this one description will answer for the whole Liver

at the very least there must have been 20 or 30 such Nuclei the foundation of future Abscess.


The walls of the Viscus where greatly thickened to the extent of 2 or 3 inches it presented nothing peculiar in its external appearance but on opening it the whole of the Cuticular portion was found thickened and presented a peculiar honeycomed[sic] appearance which we see in pericarditis, in colour it was of a dirty yellow the whole of these changes I atribute[sic] to Gastritis caused by the attempted perforation of the Stomach for the purpose of obtaining an outlet for the Abscess however perforation never took place hence the rupture of the Abscess into the Abdominal Cavity.

The Kidneys where healthy Spleen slightly enlarged. bladder healthy, Heart and Lungs both healthy.


In this case which is a very rear[sic] occurrence we have a remarkable example of an effort of nature to get rid of an offending substance the remarkable part was the obscure symptoms and the apparent absence of Abdominal pain it seems hard to reconcile ones mind to the effect that she could have suffered no pain from it considering the great structural changes of which took place. I forgot to say that on finding the Liver enlarged I ask the question if ever she layed down and I was told she did not but even in this there was nothing remarkable as many horses especially old ones never lay down at all[.] I also forgot to mention that early on the morning of the 9th inst she fell down in her box and remained down for 2 hours at the end of that time she got up herself this I atributed[sic] to her sleeping while standing and falling I feel shure[sic] that the Abscess was not ruptured than.


The cause is equally obscure she never received any injury and was but on one occasion which has been described admitted into Hospital.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/3 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Circulatory Systems

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Chestnut Mare – Lazaretto [Annotated ‘5 Lancers’]

Previous History of Mare:

History of this case was that the mare without any reason showed signs of intermittent lameness; this gradually got worse & thrombosis was diagnosed from the following symptoms.

Would start well; after going a little distance would commence straddling with hind legs more marked in off than near. The straddling gait rapidly got worse & rocking from side to side. She was with difficulty got to a place where she could lie down. When she would get down at once showing every sign of acute pain extremities cold, veins of hind legs much distended (an important size & in the present case due to venous a well as arterial thrombosis) The iliacs were previous in May 1887 at time when the above symptoms were most marked. In March ‘88 the iliacs could only be felt as hard cords. Pulsation abruptly ceasing at posterior Aorta. There was no patchy sweating. Nothing out of the ordinary in the sweat symptoms to draw one’s attention to it. Symptoms passed off in an hour – Time symptoms took to appear was 5-10 minutes.

Roarer – She was an intermittent roarer & there was nothing on P M Exmn to account for this.

no Laryngeal paralysis

Note – That she had as slightly straightly dropped hind legs it was possible to have.

In Feb ‘87 mare was reported to have slipped backwards in jumping over a ditch leaving her hind legs “behind her” nothing appeared amiss afterwards.

On 20th March 1888 was found down and unable to rise, No signs of cholic. Feeding. no loss

of sensation. Pulse decidedly firm 40, less intermittent than


usual. Conjunction near mouth pale. got her up with help stood for ¾ hour. all hay & straw. relieved her of 1 Gall of urine which was thick & creamy in appearance. Examination per return should iliacs of both sides like firm cords & with no pulsation in them. Again fell down suddenly & lay quietly.

On morning of 21st evidently worse and died in forenoon. Had eaten feed.

[Annotated ‘P M Exmn’]

Great congestion of peritoneum; marked congestion of the bowels. Displacement of double colon. pelvic[?] flexnor[sic] being close to Diaphragm (there was great p. m tymphany although body was examined at 5 pm) Colon contained large quantity of healthy material.

Small intestines inflamed from Duodenum to ileum colon being maroon. gut not thickened; contents blood – coloured ingesta. Cause unknown unless intratracheal injection of serum from case of Hydrothorax produced it.

[Annotated ‘Liver’]

Small chocolate coloured and calcareous. 7 lb 12 oz. one deposit removed, as large as a cherry stone.

The lime deposits were nothing like so numerous as met with in India but quite as large &

of same character.

Stomach and Kidneys healthy

Attached to omentum were 2 small tumours size of nut. extremely hard & like the testicles of a small animal in appearance – on section found to be lime encapsuled. the deposit being of a dirty grey colour

[Annotated ‘Lungs – normal’]

A little water in chest & also in pericardial sac. On slitting up some of the pulmonary vessels the internal coat was found roughened & from thrombi attached. Beyond this change & a slight oedematous condition of anterior lobe of right lung (& that was probably due to the intratracheal injection) nothing of further importance was observed.


Post Aorta

Just before its bifurcation into the iliacs contained a firm thrombus which on the Cardiac side had a tapered extremity, about 3 ½ inches long. Whilst on iliac side it almost completely filled the vessel

the Ext[erna]l & Int[erna]l iliacs with their various branches were also plugged. so completely in fact that it was difficult to understand how any blood passed along the vessels. The thrombi extended down as low as the middle of Tibia where an artery had been accidentally cut across & a little fluid black blood escaped. The dissection of the vessels was as easily accomplished as in a[sic] infected “artery subject” in fact the feel imparted to the fingers on manipulating the arteries was just as if filled with firm wax injection. On slitting open the post[erio]r Aorta close to its iliac bifurcation a firm clot resembling much in shape a human pluis[?] was found. Its colon was yellowish internally, blood coloured externally & where flakey adherent to wall of the vessel it was brown.

This adhesion occurred at floor of Aorta so that whatever blood passed through the vessel was between the roof of the thrombus. In the Iliac arteries the clots appear to have completely filled the vessels & though collateral circulation must have been established to compensate for this plugging yet such was not observable.

Those vessels doing the work were not particularly large. Observe that the clots in all the vessels were irregular & appeared like dice on a string. The composite nature of thrombus showed that it had been gradually added to & that these additions were irregular was proved by the nodular condition of the vessels.

The Post[erio]r Vena Cava had a firm thrombus in it extending from its origin 6 or 8 inches forward.

It by no means filled the vessel; was firmly


attached to the wall at its posterior part but elsewhere lay free. It was a shrunken mottled, yellowish, white rigid clot. This latter was covered by a membrane which on being incised yellowish olive material could be squeezed out. Is it not peculiar for a thrombus to be provided with a covering.

The Iliac veins were free; but in tibial vein of off hind exactly in popliteal space was a firm thrombus completely distending the vessel causing it to assume a varicose appearance; & was as large as one’s thumb. On making a section into the varicose tibial veins the coats were found very thick. Thrombus externally yellow & firm internally brown & soft – this latter most peculiar.

The veins from head of tibia (off hind only) down to front of hock were completely plugged as far as front of hock (veins 2 not one) were varicose the whole distance & the plexus which forms over front front[sic] of joint being fully distended by the thrombus formed the most pretty natural injection conceivable.

On removing the skin from inside of thighs considerable hamorrhage[sic] had taken place into the muscular tissue & in places the muscular tissue & in places the muscular fibres appeared torn & hemorrhage was also present as far in as obturator foramen.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

[Annotated ‘Fibralation of the Ven abl June 1927’]

1893 No 11 Corp: Horse number 15894

8th June – Valvula[sic] Disease – fell this morning & brought sick with injured knee. Took pulse and found it 14 no mistake, taken a dozen times. Temperature 102. 18, fainted five times during the day – heart sound difficult to determine first sound normal & sound attended long pause during which the heart appears to be spasmodically contracting, judging from the vibrations of the chest, irregular pulse. The thumping of the heart so great that it can be counted at a distance by the shock seen.

The scapula & chest wall.

9th [June] Pulse 15, fainted three times – feeding well

10th [June] [Pulse] 18, [fainted] twice [times] – [feeding well]

11th [June] [Pulse] 18 resp 18 [fainted] twice [times] – [feeding well]

12th [June] [Pulse] 24 [resp] 18 [fainted] four [times] – [feeding well]

13th [June] Temp 101 [Pulse] 36 [resp] 18 [fainted] four [times] – [feeding well]

14th [June] [Temp] 100 [Pulse] 43 [resp] 18 [fainted] three [times] – [feeding well]

15th [June] [Pulse] 18 [resp] 18 [fainted] three [times] – [feeding well]

16th [June] [Pulse] 18 [resp] 18 [fainted] five [times] – [feeding well]

17th [June] [Pulse] 18 [resp] 18 [fainted] four [times] – [feeding well]

18th [June] [Pulse] 30 [resp] 18 [fainted] three [times]   – Case hopeless Board applied for

14th July – Destroyed by order of a committee. P.M.E The heart was enormously dilated & so flabby that it was like jelly all the cavities were dilated & the wall atrophied so much so that the left ventricle was thinner than an ordinary right ventricle. There was no vascular disease & I cannot account for the absence of the 2nd heart sound. Heart weighed 9 lbs.

14th July – Destroyed

[Annotated ‘Thickness of left ventricle 1 1/8 inches

Extreme width of left [ventricle] 11 [inches]
[Extreme width of] right [ventricle] 11 [inches]



This horse was destroyed with chloroform prior to which a very careful examination was made of the chest by Buller & me. The heart was irregular & thumping 1st sound an entire absence of the 2nd sound succeeded by distant vibrations of the heart wall or chest wall but no pound.

This heart sound was carefully gone into, it varied for 17 to 30 per mint[sic]. The higher number was due to excitement the animal being about[?] to be destroyed.

I expected the heart to stop readily under chloroform but this was not the case, it took two or three ounces & the exclusion of air to destroy him. The respiration then ceased before the heart.

I do not understand the absence of the 2 heart sound with healthy valves. There can be no doubt that it was absent this is quite ununderstandable unexplainable excepting on the

After the heart had stood for a few hours rigor mortis set in & the walls became firm, but not so firm as ordinary.

The cause of the Dilation of the heart is obscure doubtless the length of time it took the ventricles to fill is the explanation of the slow pulse

After a faint the pulse became nearly entirely lost. They gradually strengthened to a marked dicrotic[?] character.

Irregular pulsation observed as high as the junction[?]


Sounds of this heart

1st sound thumping

2nd [sound] sometimes entirely lost at other times a mere trace of sound.

In either case the heart contraction is followed by a vibration of the chest wall as if the heart were spasmodically contracting & yet no sound produced.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]