These papers cover work carried out by Smith as an Army Veterinarian in various locations during his time in military service. The forms, manuscript notes, sketches and paintings were all created to record the illness and ailments of the horses treated by Smith and his colleagues. It seems that these notes were initially kept in notebooks, in a roughly chronological order, but that Smith later sorted them into separate categories. Annotations by Smith in blue crayon suggest that these were used to provide strong examples of cases for his later writing. Some of the cases are grouped together by area of anatomy, or particular disease. These folders have been maintained, and divided into two subseries: anatomy and pathology.
Smith carried out a thorough sorting of his papers in 1927, and annotations made at this time are clearly dated for that year.

FS/2/2/2/2/3 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Fractures and Wounds

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May 5 1880

This Horse having only just joined from the 14th Hussars, I am unable to furnish as full a medical history as I would have like. The case came under treatment for a slight wound to a hind fetlock on the 26th April for which it was fomented. While this was being carried out this day 5th May, he suddenly wheeled round, ran back then rushed forward, turned sharp & jumped a Bamboo hen Coop and then started off at a mad gallop towards the Troop Lines & bolted into the angle formed by two walls dashed his head against the wall & lay doubled up. I saw him in about 3 minutes & he had just raised his head, looking wildly round sitting on his haunches, foaming at the mouth, champing jaws. He then made ineffectual attempts to get up during which time I had him well douched. With the assistance of the Farrier he was almost carried into the nearest box, & it was noticed that he had very little control over the hind quarters, rolling from side to side, he was then examined per rectum but no fracture was discovered, emptied lower bowels, give emetic and Aloes Bas[?] ℨV. Continue cold effusion. Won’t drink. Stands with leg stretched out as in the act of urinating bladder constantly examined to see that distention did not occur, but at this time he had complete control over sphincter. So able to use his hind limbs as he kicked very savagely while being douched. Sensation[?] perfect.


No change. Stands stretched out, no pain over the back or loins has an unnerving glare opens eye very wide, feeds well & is now able to drink.


Fell down at 7 a.m. Got him up. <illegible> to loins & back. After standing 2 hours was allowed to lie down, while down in perfectly quite[sic]. The bowels have not responded to the medicine or enemata owing to the paralysis of the coats. Faeces very hard, small & yellow. 4 pm passed the catheter drew off about quart of clean limpid urine. 5p 5v 10.10


May 9

Much same excepting that he seems in more pain, keeps looking round to the side. Has got up two in three times during the day in order to ease the lungs at 7 a.m. passed urine involuntarily, penis hanging pendulous and urine of a red colour which on boiling with Nitric Acid deposits a dark coagular. While the bowels were being manually relieved a quantity of gravel came away with the faeces.

12 pm

Off feed, urine passing constantly, drinks freely. Nothing passes with enema but he strains when the hand is introduced.

10 pm

Worse. give Ext Belladonna ℨiij . Temp 105, Pulse 72 wiry & small. Hot rugs to the spine at 11:30. The temp was 106, pulse 84, Resp 30. Conjunctive internally injected.

[May] 10

Dissolution is rapidly approaching, very delirious. Pulse almost imperceptible. Knickering about and rapidly died.

Necropsy. Revealed what I had expected viz a fracture of the spine, but I was not prepared to find it as far forward as the 8th dorsal vertebrae, which was fractured through its body, but without displacement. This fracture was undoubtably caused by the concussion of running into the stone wall and was quite recent. The meninges of the brain and cord were inflamed and a quantity of fluid existed in Spinal Canal & Cranial Cavity. The cord was softened & presented haemorrhagic spots. The Brain contained a quantity of fluid in its Lateral Ventricle & small tumours composed of a shiny substance very like fish scales (I believe cholestrine) were found in the substance of the Plexus Choroideus, and also on the sides of the cerebellum.

Remarks. These tumours were the cause of the Epiliptic[sic] fit and I account for his bolting by being frightened at the peculiar “warming” that Epileptic subjects always have prior to a fit coming on.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


The appearance of E16 as he lay on the ground dying

This sketch, with its characteristic facial expression, enabled me to recall the case when I pasted this in June 1927 namely 47 years after the event.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/10 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Hock

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FS/2/2/2/2/4 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Anthrax

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This material is Crown copyright, and contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government License v.3.0.

[Stamp of F Smith V.S. 12th Royal Lancers, dated 13.2.84]

Report on the recent outbreak of Anthrax among the horses of the Royal Artillery (I/3 and s/1) at the station of Bangalore during the month of December 1883


On the evening of the 5th December 1883 I returned from Mysore on duty and was met by Veterinary Surgeon Crows at the Railway Station who requested me to assist him in making a post mortem examination of an Elephant that had died that day and which he suspected had succumbed to Anthrax.

I proceeded to the place and the appearances presented by this beast on autopsy were identical with those seen in a horse which has suffered from the disease.

In all three elephants had died in two days. On returning late that evening we visited the Artillery lines as a horse had been reported “off feed” and on arrival we found three horses dead & one dying. There could be no doubt as to the nature of the malady. In S/1 Nos 39 & 42 had been admitted on the 4th Decr No 85 that day. In I/3 Nos 36 & 63 had been admitted at 6 pm that day.

On the following morning both batteries were moved out of their lines well to windward regular inspections of the healthy ordered and every possible means adopted to prevent contagion between the sick & healthy. On this day (6th Decr) the disease showed itself as a very virulent form no less than four horses of I/3 being admitted with it & two of S/1. Four died that day.

On the 7th Decr there was no sign of the disease abating seven horses were admitted “off feed” from I/3 and of these five died. Three were admitted from S/1 and these recovered. On this day I recommended I/3 to move ground which was done.

On the 8th Decr six horses were admitted again from I/3. Two of these died. S/1 furnished no cases this day.

On the 9th Decr There was a marked improvement in the health of both batteries, only two horses were reported “off feed” and both these recovered.

The 10th Decr saw the improvement continue, two more cases of “off feed” occured in I/3 these both recovered.

A whole week now elapsed without any cases presenting themselves when on the morning of 16th Decr a horse was admitted at 11:30 with


marked symptoms of the disease & died in a few hours.

The 17th & 18th passed in safety & on the 19th Decr the batteries were removed to Hebbel & left my charge.

It is important to notice that S/1 suffered but slightly, their burst on the first day was not fortunately followed up and practically no cases occurred in this battery after the 6th Decr. This I cannot account for, both batteries are placed as nearly as possible under identical conditions, both are in the open, their stables not 200 yards apart; the water supply is from the same source, their grain probably from the same place. In the matter of feeding there was however a vast difference. This will be dealt with hereafter.


The weather in the early part of December was not in any way remarkable, here is a chart showing the direction of the wind and rainfall for the month:

[Table with data from 1-16 December 1883]

Now although there were no marked meteorological phenomena yet I think we may fairly consider among any probable causes the not improbable one of atmospheric influences. I do not mean by this that any


complex change was occurring in the chemical or other constituents of the atmosphere, for on this subject I cannot attempt to speculate but I do think it not improbable that the virus of the disease was present in the atmosphere and for the following cogent reason.

On the 4th & 5th Decr Anthrax occur simultaneously at the elephant lines, R.A lines, and among the horses of the 12th Royal Lancers I had three “off feed”. It would appear from this as if an Anthracogenic[sic] wave had passed over the station or at any rate this portion of it. I append a map showing the position of these several lines, the arrows shows the direction of the wind.

I am well aware that this speculation rather increases the difficulty of determining the cause than in assisting us in solving it, but the circumstance made an impression on me that no grass theory could remove for these elephants received no grass but were fed on cholum and sugar cane.

Whether an Anthracogenic[sic] wave really passed over might perhaps be determined by an examination of the records of cattle disease in the Province & neighboring taluks. I consider the [blank space] of importance because of the simultaneous outbreak of the disease in two distinct batteries, the cattle yard and not improbably the occurrence of three mild cases in a regiment of Cavalry. This is a very strong argument in favor of air poison, & very strong presumptive evidence against the grass. I would here explain that I partly recognize the influence that grass may have in introducing Anthrax into a regiment. but I do not think that in this case it suffices to account for the disease breaking out in so many different places within twelve hours of each other.

At the commencement of the outbreak we had no rise in the subsoil water but on the 13th, 14th & 16th Decr there was heavy rain. The significance of rain & Anthrax is marked. In a previous report I commented on this peculiarity.

The drinking water for both batteries as for the division (except the Native Cavalry) is from the Ulsoor Tank. the water trough of I/3 is by the side of the road exposed to any & every pollution. A year ago I pointed out the necessity of always having a sentry on the trough, and among the possible causes this is one to be considered.

Was this trough used by horses or cattle which had, or were suffering


from the disease? In my opinion it is not impossible but very improbable and I lay no particular stress on this point for the reason that S/1 suffered from the disease & the water trough of this battery is within the walls of their lines. The exposed position of the trough is the reason which prompts me to mention it.

With regard to feeding the two batteries were unlike. S/1 fed in the usual manner on Coolty and Grass, but the Officer Commanding I/3 with the object of curing skin disease amongst his horses, reduced the grass ration and gave cholum & ragi as well as the ordinary grass cutters grass. Was this cholum and ragi obtained from crops bordering on fields where Anthrax carcases[sic] lay or where diseased animals had been kept? It is singular that the elephants had been fed on choloum.

In one or two of the Post Mortem Exam: made I noticed large quantities of undigested cholum & ragi filling up the bowel, & where this had occurred the gut was intensely affected & almost gangrenous. This will prove the danger of giving to animals such coarse fodder during Anthrax time as it must destroy their slight chances of recovery.

Personally I place no faith in the cholum & ragi theory, but I mention the fact of the difference in the feeding owing to the disproportionate numbers of attacks in both batteries.

The grass of both batteries, as of that of all other mounted corps, is obtained anywhere, I speak advisedly, but to say that grass cutters go to a certain place to cut is an absurdity, some may or all would under European supervision, but the impossibility of the latter means that they get their bundles from the nearest place to their huts and I dont suppose that more than ten bundles in any one regiment are cut within a mile or more of each other. I do not think the grass theory explains this outbreak for reasons previously given, still in the present state of our knowledge, it is useless to speculate or point to one cause as being absolutely certain.

Symptoms and Post Mortem Appearances

There were more abdominal than [blank space] and throat cases. The proportions were [blank space]

The shortest time an animal lived from admission was three hours, the longest fourteen days. In one case the disease was localised in two or three feet of the Rectum which became enormously oedematous & protruded. The patient suffered acutely & nothing gave relief.

In a fatal throat case there was also a swelling in the near quarter.


This I have never seen before in the horse. The throat cases as usual lived longer (after a tube was inserted) than the abdominal ones, and the only patients which recovered, that undoubtedly had the disease, were mild throat cases, in neither of which it was found necessary to perform trachaeotomy.

I have previously submitted the post mortem description of a case which lasted fourteen days. The lessons one very instructive, & the case unusual. Beyond what I have mentioned there was nothing special in the symptoms & post-mortem appearances to distinguish it from others.


I gave Iodine a fair bit in this outbreak. The dose was given was from half to one ounce of Iodine Pur: in a ball followed up by half an ounce every four hours. Intravenous injections were also given of the tincture. The results from Iodine are not very satisfactory, one undoubted case recovered that was treated with this agent. Hydrog: Bichlor was used in doses of ten grams twice a day, one undoubted case recovered which received this drug but the patient had also been treated with Carbolic Acid & the length of time the Hyd Bichlor was exhibited could not have been of any real value. It is singular that this patient refused to swallow any liquid medicine & I could waste to no more Carbolic Acid on him and so gave Hyd Bichlor in a ball. But he only received two or three doses when he showed such signs of returning health that I discontinued the drug so that practically I consider this case recovered without the use of medicine. Of the value of Carbolic Acid I am doubtful.

I administered preparations of Ammonia to most of the cases.


I am at a loss to know how the disease spreads after it breaks out. Is it by contagion or infection or both? I look upon the solution of this problem as being nearly equal in importance to the causes. I append a plan of the lines of I/3 showing the standings of each horse & of those attacked. It will be noticed some stood together or near each other but withal the cases were fairly well distributed through two double lines. Of course the probable means which suggest themselves to account for the spread of Anthrax are water troughs, nose bags (these I/3 did not use) and the virus being carried through the lines by horsekeepers. Still I am far from satisfied that these causes singularly or continued will fully account for its spread. Last year A troop 12th Royal Lancers suffered severely, these were under the same conditions as the other five troops of the regiment and yet these were not attacked. The water trough could have


spread the disease to the other troops but did not. In the same way S/I only lost 5 cases, yet these have infected the remainder of the battery either through the water trough or nose bags. I must really lean to poisoning through atmosphere, I mean infection.

But this subject is of immense importance and can only be settled by direct experiment. It is very singular in reference to the plan of the lines to note the number of cases which occurred among horses standing near each other or together. Yet such facts as these must not be taken as conclusive for there are many cases known where horses standing near diseased ones have remained unaffected & I know of two experiments made to determine this point both remaining negative. The last was made by V.S. Steel and among other things the same nose bag was used for both animals. Both Field Batteries all in open lines, there is no obstruction to a free current of air & the soil is clean. Sporadic Cases of Anthrax have occurred in the I/3 lines during the past year but from my enquiries no severe attack has shown itself in these lines for some years. It is different with S/I the year before last a battery of R.A which occupied these lines suffered very severely and I/3 at that time had not a single case.

The more one looks into these & other facts the more inexplicable these virulent outbreaks of Anthrax seem. What conditions determine sporadic cases & severe epizootics? What absolute proof have we that the disease is introduced into lines either by grass, water, air or soil? The whole matter is one of speculation.

Experimental Investigation We have made no experiments with the material which we perhaps justly condemn as the poison introducer or factor & I would urge that experimental investigation be carried out to show throw some light on the subject that it will throw light I am convinced.

To make myself clear I will take the following example: –

We strongly condemn the washing of grass, and we blame the grass in many cases as the means of introducing the disease. Now this is pure speculation, we have no single experiment to prove it. It could however be proved & that very simply. If dirty tank and nullah water will produce Anthrax why should not, say 12 horses cast for being incurable or worn out be watered entirely with water rather from these places. If within two months or more they all remained healthy after they have been watered from the worst places in Bangalore, we might


with safety reject this theory as being untenable and turn our attention to some other suspected points such as feeding our subjects on tank grass, or grass from flooded lands or from the graves of Anthrax cases or from grass which has undergone fermentation. Administer earth to them from suspected places such as they would receive as their grass, picket them on dung heaps or other places where decomposition of animal and vegetable matter is going on. If during these experiments Anthrax was produced observations could then be made as to the period of incubation, infection contagion & treatment. Altogether the enquiry would take twelve months but there is not a doubt much valuable & reliable information would be obtained regarding this disease at a very small cost to Government, & probably be the means of saving them thousands of rupees which are lost annually through its ravages.

This enquiry through a laborious one I should be perfectly willing to conduct without prejudice to my other duties.

Doubtful Cases

We have again in this outbreak to note the frequency of horses “off feed” all these cases have been entered in the Register as a “Simple Fever” & in the plan of the lines I have shown them as doubtful.

On scientific grounds I have been strongly opposed to recording these cases as Anthrax cured, but from the constancy with which they occur during the several outbreaks of the disease I have witnessed I am convinced that they are not the result of accident, but that they are full of significance. Can they be mild forms of the disease when the poison is endeavoring to obtain an entry into the system? Again we find ourselves speculating! Let this be settled by experimental investigation.


There was very little time for original research but the following observations on the microscopical appearances of the blood are of value. The blood was examined immediately it was taken from the body.

I/3 No 1

Examined on the first day of disease. No bacilla present, blood apparently normal. Case died next day.

[I/3 No] 10

Blood examined immediately after death, no bacilla red corpuscles, oily looking, seem deprived of much of their colour to an extent of outline. They collect as a structureless oily mass. Spores a few present.

[I/3 No] 18

Blood examined in the second day of disease, red cells oily as above, defective in outline, white cells numerous, serous fluid from


rectal protrusion, swarming with rods and spores. Patient died the following day.

I/3 No 22

Examined on the third day of disease. No bacilla or spores to be seen in the blood; blood cells shrunken stellata & granular. In the serum from swollen throat no sign of bacilla or spores. The blood of this patient was examined on the day of admission and nothing found in it.

Died on the fourth day of disease.

S/I [No] 48

Examined on the second day of disease. A throat case. Examined the blood from the tube & wound, found the cells had lost their outline, greasy, oily looking, and in clusters drew themselves out in long globules. No bacilla. This patient lived fourteen days, and after death I found no bacilla.

[S/I No] 104

Examined blood on the second day of disease no bacilli. Red corpuscles as before described, formed oily looking masses their definition lost & colour partially destroyed. This case a slight one recovered.

These observations are important. Bacilla were found in only once, & that from an acutely oedematous bowel. The changes to the red cells were very marked & I have attempted to draw them from memory. I am far from satisfied that this oily aggregation of red cells is constant in Anthrax, but I am assured of its presence in the above undoubted cases of the disease.


The statistics of this outbreak are as follows:

I Battery 3rd Brig – Strength 110


Number of undoubted cases in proportion to the strength – 13 per cent

[Number of undoubted cases] that died ]in proportion to strength] – 12 [per cent]
[Number of] doubtful [cases in proportion to the strength] – 9 [per cent]
[Number of] undoubted cases that recovered in proportion to the attack – 7 [per cent]

Including all cases that recovered [in proportion to the attack] – 46 [per cent]

Number of deaths in proportion to the number of undoubted cases attacked – 93 [per cent]


S Battery 1st Brig – Strength 110 


Number of undoubted cases in proportion to the strength – 4.5 per cent

[Number of undoubted cases] that died [in proportion to strength] – 3.5 [per cent]
[Number of] doubtful [cases in proportion to the strength] – 2.5 [per cent]
[Number of] undoubted cases that recovered in proportion to the attack – 20 [per cent]

Including all cases that recovered [in proportion to the attack] – 50 [per cent]

Number of deaths in proportion to the number of undoubted cases attacked – 80 [per cent]


In framing these statistics I have shown the recoveries & deaths of two ways. First as separate from doubtful cases & secondly in conjunction with them.

[Below text struck through and annotated ‘Cancelled’]


In conclusion I would beg to bring to your notice the manner in which I have been hampered in the performance of my duties by people who though entirely ignorant of the subject take upon themselves to pass strictures on my treatment. I spared neither time or trouble with these cases & brought the latest scientific views to bear on the epizooty. I therefore feel that justice has not been done me & entirely because I returned all doubtful cases as such and not as Anthrax Cured and also for the reason that my treatment was not that laid down for the guidance of Farriers in R.A. S.O published 13 years ago.

Vety Surgn


12th February 1884


The Inspecting Veterinary Surgeon

Madras Army.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/2/2 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Joint Diseases

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5/1st R.A

Case 30, No 23

[Annotated ‘Lameness’]


Augt 13th

Sprain to sesamoid[sic] sheath of off hind limb. Extreme lameness and pain. Foment and give Aloes ℨV  – Place in slings

[August] 15

Physic acting – The animal is in great pain – high heeled shoe

[August] 24

Placed in slings – suffering acutely – hot fomentations

Sept 1st

Still in great pain – There must be some very severe injury to this sheath – continue treatment – Removed from slings being badly chafed

Sept 20th

Not a big better and an abcess[sic] has formed at the fetlock, discharging a little thin pus. Fomentations is the only thing which gives relief the animal is losing flesh and considering the length of time he has been ill it is a wonder he has not died of irritative fever

Oct 10th

The animal do not make the least improvement he is constantly holding the limb in the air. The sheath is tense, thickened, hot, painful and another abcess[sic] has formed on the outside of the fetlock, also discharging a little thin pus & synovia.

[October] 23rd

I cannot make out the case, it is wonderful that an animal should for so many weeks suffer such acute pain with no sign of abatement, I believe the sesamoid sheath is ruptured and I will try the counter irritating effect of a blister – Put back in slings and blister the part. The suffering is telling


upon the poor animal who is daily loosing flesh though on full feed, if he were not a young horse I would certainly apply for his destruction.


The blister has acted as yet with no good effect


Still as painful as ever, the limb is held up all day

Nov 20th

I think there is a little improvement, he bears more weight on it and is looking better.

The brush[?] is enormously distended, tense & painful – He has been now in slings a month

[November] 27

Continues to improve

Decr 24th

An abcess[sic] which does not communicate with the brush has formed and burst on the external Surface of the bursa or is about the size of a Rupee. Dress all with dry bran. Stands much better. I am not likely to remain in charge much longer or I would certainly fine the joint as soon as this abcess[sic] has healed.

[Handwriting changes]

1884, 28 Jan

When I saw this animal to day he was going sound. The sheath fetlock is much enlarged but the [iron] should put him right. He is quite fat & plump now.

May 1

saw him again to day, not lame but has small abscess forming occasionally[?] around the pastern. Crow has fired him again & he still remains sound.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


Extract from Record

Case 133, No-111

1st Novb 1882

Wound incised off fore above Fetlock caused while jumping, the perforatus is nearly divided the synovial sac opened dress with Carbolized Bran & syringe every morning for an hour with Carbolized Water.

6th [November]

An abscess has formed in the heel owing to suppuration within the bursa. Continue treatment.

20th [November]

Wound healing well. Continue treatment.

Dec 1st

Nearly healed, a deal of thickening remains & horse

Looseing[sic] condition. Full feed, omit carbolic syringing & the carbolized bran

Jan 1st 1883

Wound healed the thickening is as great as ever would blister but consider it useless, what makes matters worse is the irritable condition of the patient who won’t go in slings & won’t lie quietly but continues hopping round the stall with a high heeled shoe on remove the latter & bring up for casting.

Extract from Register.

No 111 – Chestnut gelding; 4 years old; Australian.

Q/1st B[riga]de R.A

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

[Image – Left] Perforatus [Image – Right] Perforans

Injury to tendon caused by an over reach. Horse belonged  to 2/1 RA no 111

The perforatus was thickened which extended around the joint. The perforatus, cut through, infected. The perforans infected, small portion of example is parts showing that it had become adherent.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/9 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Foot

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1884 Case 83, No 45.

June 10th

Laminitis in all four feet principally the fore ones due to being overworked on first journey the Battery.

Treatment. mash diet apply wet swabs to coronet.

Stand in tank 4 hours daily

[June] 22nd

Better. repeat treatment.

July 14th

I can see no signs of Laminitis about the feet at the present time. I suspect the case must have come on more of congestive than inflammatory. Going fairly sound & sent to duty to see whether any thing develops itself.

Discharged, Relieved.

Case 117, No 45

21st July

Laminitis Chronic. This horse (see case above) went to duty and after one mornings work came back intolerably lame with every symptom of laminitis. There is not much heat in the foot & no constitutional disturbance. I therefore conclude it is more congestive than inflammatory & more chronic than acute.

Stand in foot bath.


The casting committee assembled this day & this animal was brought forward by the O.C. I gave it as my opinion that the lameness would be recurrent & that from the short time I had known the animal it was impossible for me to say that the case was perfectly incurable. Nevertheless, I believe it to be so & the animal an undesirable one to retain for further treatment. There is no alteration in the shape of the feet, no rings round the wall, but the action is most indicative of the disease.




July 24th

This morning the patient was brought out again for my inspection & was found so lame that he could only just progress on the back of the heels with his fore legs right out in front of him, his hind under the body.

Cold water applications & exercise.

Augt 1st

This morning is worse than ever & the animal having been cast, I discharge him off the books.

Discharged, incurable.

Autopsy. I only found in two places, not more than one inch wide any sign of discolouration of the sensitive laminae, they being here scarlet & at their attachment nearly black. The discoloured laminae were not enlarged but were flabby & portions of them remained adherent to the horny wall where this was removed. On examining the navicular bursa of one limb it was found to contain very little synovia. The perforans tendon has eroded as if it has been scraped with a knife. The navicular bone had brown patches on its fibro cartilage on either side of the central ridge. There was no sign of ulceration, but the cartilage was speckled with calcareous deposits. The opposite navicular bursa contained no synovia but was moist, the tendon eroded & discoloured, the fibro-cartilage covering the bone was brown along its lower half & speckled with calcareous deposits: at two small points blood could be seen when the bone was bare.

Remarks. This is a very exceptional case, I believe the whole lameness was due to the diseased navicular bursa, & that the laminitis appearance was post-mortem; yet, during life no one could have seen this patient but would have said that the gait was truly indicative of acute laminitis.

Remarked during life that the feet presented no appearance of laminitis, & as will be seen from my remarks I doubted the diagnosis of my predecessor; yet when the animal came under my observation lame, I felt no doubt in my mind of the correctness of my predecessors views, & diagnosed the case, even in the absence of heat & alteration in the feet as laminitis chronic.

M/2 R.A. M 45 Sex G Age 6


[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


Veterinary Regulations

Death Report

12th Regiment Lancers

Station: Bangalore

Date: 7th July 1883

Troop or Battery: F

Number of Horses: 42

Sex: G

Age: 15

Disease: Laminitis

Date of Admission: 1 Feby

Date of Death: 7 Feby

Record of the Case

Copies from the Record Case Book

Feby 1st

Laminitis. This is another old horse whose life has been worked out of him at the Camp of Exercise, he is off feed, dull, conjunctive dirty red.  Pulse can only be taken with difficulty owing to his being so vicious, the Temperature also cannot be taken on that account. The case is one of extreme exhaustion caused by the killing work they have just had. He won’t feed & nothing can be given him on account of his vice.

[Feby] 2

No change, stiff all over & disinclined to move. Refuses everything.

[Feby] 3

Remains same, nothing can be forced down him

[Feby] 4

Suffering from Laminitis both fore worst is the off gait.

Constitutional symptoms severe, place in heavy shoes


& exercise.

[Feby] 5

Remains same, goes better after exercise, but worse after standing. Feet hot, likes to stand down hill, respirations increased, anxious expression.

[Feby] 6

No better refuses everything & looks much worse constitutionally the exercise causes such pain & distress that I had him kept quiet in a box with cold applications to the feet.

[Feby] 7

I feel sure he has not much longer to live, but he is as vicious as ever lying down all day, so had shoes removed. Respirations increased. Conjunctive dirty red, pulse imperceptible. Died suddenly at 8.30 pm

Autopsy. Mucus membrane of intestines congested. Structure of liver & kidneys broken down, heart filled with clots. Pulmonary & Aortic valves thickened. Superficial vessels filled with clots & decomposition rapid. Laminae of both feet black, thickened particularly at the toe.

Discharged Died.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/2 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Joints

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[Annotated ‘Ostitis[sic]’]

D 47 12RL On opening the muscles there was nothing to be seen but that the muscles were paler than usual & on opening the capsule of the joint the synovia was in excess & deeply died[sic] with blood, the synovial membrane was thicker than usual but not inflamed. The articular cartilage rather swollen and soft around the circumference of the humerus, but in no wise[?] inflamed or ulcerated, towards the ant: internal part of the articular surface of the scapular there was a slight abrasion, notched like of its circumference, it was smaller than a pea, but the cartilage was swollen & the bone was distinctly felt bare[?] in its centre, it was not inflamed or was there any sign of ulceration. The flexor Brachii[?] at its origin seemed injected & there was a bruise the size of a bean just below its tendon on the outside. The sub scapularis muscle had suffered, it presented the appearance of being severely bruised, ecchymosed through half its length and entire thickness. I could detect no rupture of its fibres, & its insertion was intact. The humerus & Scapular through half their length were congested, the periostium thickened and easily removed leaving the injected bone beneath. More particularly was this the case in certain parts such as near the insertion of the sub scapularis but the outside of the joint had shared in this apparently inflamed process but not to the same extent. There was osteitis of Humerus – see sketch

The history of the case of which the above is the post mortem is that on March 1st this horse collided during competition with a much heavier one, was struck on the near shoulder & knocked over. She fell on her side, but got up & walked to the infirmary with the leg dangling about like a broken one, thrown across the front of its fellow, the elbow being turned out, was placed in slings. When again examined next day when made to move the whole shoulder seemed to come out laterally the elbow turned out & the giving was so great that the animal leant entirely over to that side. I believe the 4th Condyle of humerus is knocked off & with it the attch of Portea Spinatus

March 6 – Blistered and consulted with Brown[?] & he thinks a fracture.

I divided this muscle in a dead limb and produced the deformity.

March 20 –  No better. Shoulder still out or seems to be every time he[sic] moves he can stand fair on limb, but can put no weight, can even make with, has a great knack of crossing his legs both front and rear Placed in slings and tied in. Pitch plaster &c. Placed the off fore on top of rear foot. Kicks the ground constantly. I think[?] from blister – but he does it day and night. Cause on P.M.E The lumbricoides

April 7 – Found with tetanus. Owing I think from chafes in slings.

[Annotated ‘Urine SpGz 1050. Ammonial & phosphates]

[Annotated ‘Lameness’]

Veterinary Regulations

Death Report

Regiment: 12 R Lancers

Station: Bangalore

Date: 8ber 1883

Troop or Battery: D

Number of Horses: 47

Sex: M

Age: 4

Disease: Tetanus

Date of Admission: April 7th 83

Date of Death: April 8th 83

Record of the Case

Copied from the Record Case Book

Case 62 D47


7th April


This horse has been in the sick lines since March 1st with what I considered to be a fracture of the point of shoulders (near) there being extreme lameness & apparently dislocation. He was placed in slings. Lately he was found to be rather chafed round the chest as he was very uneasy and always kicking. This latter was not vice but was too continuous for such a long period not to attract attention


On visiting him this morning he was slightly blowing but feeding. On seeing him ¾ of an hour

later my suspicions were confirmed & I immediately administered, or rather tried to, a purgative. He lost nearly the whole dose. I then gave Carum[?] Indic: Ʒij with Heum Crosonis mxx in a ball. I managed to get this down. Removed to a loose box, & kept perfectly quite[sic], pulse normal, Temp 100o.

6.30pm Worse, the disease at its full height

At 9 am dropped down & died asphyxiated. [Annotated ‘8th’]

Autopsy. All viscera normal, but the stomach & duodenum contained I should say 500 Ascarides many of them over a foot in length, they nearly filled the duodenum

Remarks. Was it the chafe or Ascarides caused the tetanus. My view of the matter is that the chafe produced the mischief. The presence of this enormous number of parasites undoubtedly produced the great nuisance[?] which shewed itself in the continuous kicking there was no fracture of the shoulder, but ordeals[?] of humerus & severe bruising of Sub scapularis muscle

Discharged died

F Smith


Osteitis of Humerus D 47


A section of the head of the humerus of D47. The medulla was exactly the above colour & the cancellous tissue was just as represented. I made no section of the scapular[sic] but I am sure it was the same.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


N fore limb of I/3 horse injured at Kelbol[?]

The limb was an enormous size around the fetlock it was 17” in circumference & around the pastern 12”. There was the mark of an abscess on the outside and centre just above the fetlock. On removing the skin which was thick there was found enormous subcutaneous effusion of liquid and solid serum this was about 1 ½ “ to 2” in thickness. The superficial lymphatics were enlarged and contained coagulated lymph & a superficial abscess on front of fetlock After all this was cleaned away the Ext Pad just above the fetlock was directed downward and found to be slightly adherent to the bone & cut gently[?] the bone could also be felt nodular at this plane[.] On removing it on the joint the Capular opened was found to contain bloody muco-pus with air bubbles. The joint was laid completely open by dividing the later sesamoidal[?] lip and the synovial membrane was found scarlet and maroon extensive dislocation[?] of cartilage in several places varying from a about the size of sixpence to a pin point these were scarlet the cartilage in other places being partly absorbed the inflamed bone shown through black. There was extensive porcellaneous deposits in the joint no synovia. Partial dislocation of the met: found on the suffraginous sesamoid sheath the tendon was softened & adherent to each other & also to the fibro cartilage of sesamoids.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/6 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Digestion

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Case 12, No 131

[Annotated ‘Calculus’ and ‘3 days’]


18th June


This horse was admitted with colic at 4pm, this day, but refused morning food & found lying down at mid-day, brought in from billet & a diffusible stimulant & ultimately a five drachm solution of aloes administered. At 7 p.m. I saw the case, patient not in acute pain but persistent, cold water enemeta & hot fomentations to belly ordered. At 10 p.m. no relief from pain & worse pulse, smaller, respiration quick, pain intense, some blood had come from anus, I made a rectal examination, found a rupture in the roof of the rectum about a foot or so from the anus. The rupture was through the mucous coat, but not through the muscular coat. There was haemorrhage from the place which appears about 2 in. long. The patient strained, on examination which on this discovery was at once discontinued. I was in hopes that the rupture was posterior to the peritoneum but such turned out not to be the case. The line of treatment followed was to subdue pain & allay inflammation, so with this object I gave extract Indian Hemp & hot fomentations to the belly. These gave relief & were continued.

19th June.

7 a.m. Still in dull pain, gave 1oz


hemp every hour until relieved, continued hot fomentations.

No action of the bowels, but some gas & fluids passed. The pulse is smaller, but the patient wonderfully lively and plucky.

12.30 Noon. The pain ceased, remained quiet all the afternoon, no passage.

7 pm. Still in slight pain, again, pulse about 90 & very small, repeated hot fomentations which gave relief. Walked about outside of his own accord & drank freely, there being no action of the bowels. Ol. lini Oj was given.

20th June.

Nothing but sheer pluck is keeping him alive, there are a few intestinal murmurs, the right colon dull on percussion, central sounds of fluids, no action of bowels, abdomen rather tymphanic, pulse smaller, size eye more infected, little or no pain, the hemp has stupified[sic] him, received an intravenous injection eserine, which was followed by a slight colic which soon passed off.

He remained standing, sinking slowly but making a tremendous fight for life.

21st June. Died at 5 a.m.

Autopsy abdomen tymphanic a little pus like fluid ran out on opening the cavity. The large intestines were completely collapsed, the 2nd & 3rd portions of the colon were slightly


twisted from distension & rolling, a large knuckle of the single colon was found opposite the pelvic cavity, with much peritoneal infection on tracing this out to the anus, a calculus was found about 5” diameter, 18” from the anus & posterior to this a rupture through all the coats of the rectum, the edge of the rupture which occurred on the attached border of the intestine was ragged & discoloured the m[ucous]. m[embrane]. of the intestines much engorged. The stomach was full of liquid & contained a quantity of hemp. lungs much congested, heart large & fatty, liver fatty. The calculus was not weighed as it was kept in situ as a specimen.

Discharged, Died.

[Annotated ‘For some time before death ingesta dribbled from nostril. On P.M.E. the Omentum Major was found to have large haemorraghic spots in it.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


A 62 Died 9 Sept 1883

Abdomen greatly distended. Anus swollen. On removing Penis found the veins fully engorged & the tissues in full with serum. On opening abdomen the whole of the Bowels both small & large were found nearly black. extreme extravasation existed over the whole of their surface, serum[?] beneath peritoneum & on removal of this the muscle structure[?] was seen engorged with vessels & redder than usual. The mucous membrane was of its natural colour. At a length of 10 ½“ from anus a rupture existed in the rectum at its attached border. The rupture was 3” long by 1/2” wide. edges covered with coagulated blood, & everted. Mucous membrane at this part deeply congested. . nothing in the bowel which was caked & dry. Sigmoid[?] Colon contained a little dry feces. Caceum contained grain and water. Peritoneum intensely inflamed M[ucous]. M[embrane]. large areas covered with a black deposit like pigmentary degeneration[?] some of this was soft & easily removed others blacker harder & only scraped off with difficulty. A few anoplocephala[?] seen. The whole gut thickened with serious[?] effusion.

Colon. Contained 1st portion large quantity of pale yellow feces quickly changing colour to green. M[ucous]. M[embrane] healthy 2nd D[itt]o 3rd Dry Caked nearly empty counting large quantity of gravel. 4th Dry Caked & full. The whole gut was black scarlet spotted streaked & every imaginable hue due to Peritonitis caused by the presence of food in the abdominal cavity escaping from the rent in Rectum. Small intestine affected as the large & containing some change.


Stomach enormous. Weighed with contents 40 lbs, contents alone 23 ½ lb. Its veins were congested, its peritoneum dark scarlet & black & so tense that hardly an impression could be made on its surface & it was in imminent risk of bursting, its contents were fluid, Bran & Grass th latter two weighed 23 ½ lbs. The measurements were as follows around the organ along the Gr curvature 4’ 10”. Around its long axis 4’ 6 ¾” around its short axis 3’ 8 ½”, its greatest length was 2’ 2 ½” its greatest breadth 1’ 8” & its height or better depth 1’ 0”. It burst though handling it close to the oesophagus. The villous portion was scarlet & contained Spiroptera Nemas[?]. Pylorus constricted[?] partially Cardia diluted & oesophagus full of food. The tank[?] did not let off the gas as it gets plugged. The Duodenum take a curve like the letter S Z turned backwards which forms a natural barrier

Spleen spotted like mottle soup[?]. empty 4 ¾ lbs. large

Liver Congested. Peritonal covering spotted in one or two places calcareous weight 11 lbs 12 oz

Kidney congested 3 lbs 2 oz the pair. Largeish

Heart healthy. Nerves well marked. Always I think indicative of acute suffering height 6 lbs 12 oz. Valves healthy sub endocardid exhibited in left ventricle.

Lungs – Congested. 5 lbs 8oz each. The congestion was general. The usual saddle patch of pleurisy, on right lung a small pleuri part & a large yellow irregular <illegible> body beneath. Pleura extravasated blood.

Weight of Stomach 3 ½ lbs

The abdomen contained a large quantity of coffee coloured fluid about 1 ½ galls & some ingesta.

[Sketch of stomach]

A 62

Length from anus 10 ½ inch Length of

Rupture 3 inch width ½ inch


Greater Circumference 4 ft 10 in

Around its long axis 4 ft 6 ¾

Short axis 3 ft 8 ½

Greatest Length 2 ft 2 ½

[Greatest] Breadth 1 ft, 8

[Greatest] Hight 1 ft 0

Stomach 40 lbs

Food in Stomach 23 lbs ½

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


12th Royal Lancers

Station: Secunderabad

Date: 1881

Troop: A

Number of Horse: 59

Sex: M

Age: 6

Disease: Ruptured Stomach

Date of Admission: Oct 4th

Date of Discharge: Oct 5th

Result: died

Record of the Case

Oct 4th

Ruptured stomach. Admitted this morning with colicky pains, but as he had been often admitted before for the same disease, it was concluded that it would give way to the ordinary remedies. This however was not the case. During the day, he lay perfectly quiet & showed no signs of acute agony. I diagnosed the case as volvulus. During the night quiet, & we would have thought that he was suffering from an abdominal affection.


Died quietly at 6.30 a.m. Autopsy revealed a rupture transversely through the stomach for the space of 12 inches. The peritoneal coat was of itself ruptured quite 8 inches more.

Discharged, Died.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/2/1 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to Rabies

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Cases 375, 376. 377, 378, 379, 380, –  E 44, 55, 62, 70, 75 & 97

1875 Dec 29th

All these cases were bitten by a Rabies Dog or supposed to be. they are all bitten on the nose, with one exeption[sic] one on the off fore as well as on the nose. The wounds were cauterized with Nit Silver and were put on low diet, all the wounds heald[sic] up very fast. all kept in Sick Lines under observation.

1876 Janry 17th

Case 378. E 70

Rabies. This case was reported off feed this morning had patient tied up with strong robes in a box at 12 noon, fead[sic] alright no symptoms presented P.M When feed was put on animal fell down in a fit, was very excited. Nieghed, champing of jaws, pawing, heaving at flanks, sweting[sic] all over & on being approached got very excited and fell down would struggle for a time before getting up. Constipation great, fecies[sic] every day. Urination the act of causing great pain & stamping. The symptoms became more & more aggravated till at last patient fell down and could not get up took to biting at the wall &c and died at 3 oc the next morning.

[Janry] 18

No P.M Discharged Died.

Janry 18th

Case 375. E44.

Rabies. This case showed all the symptoms at 9 a.m. gave Ext Belladonna ℨvj after when he got gradually better.

[Janry] 20

on the morning of the 20th while at exercise showed slight symptoms of Hydrophobia I had him tied up and was quite.Rabies in about six hours after when he was destroyed.

1 Feby

Case 380. E97

Hydrophobia showed symptoms this morning was dangerous in five hours after and was ordered to be destroyed, all same symptoms.

Discharged Destroyed.

10 Feby

Case 379. E75

Hydrophobia. This case showed all symptoms seen in the first stage of other cases, but did not refuse feed was tied up for three days and got quite well.


[Annotated ‘I do not remember when I obtained this record. These cases occurred before I entered the service & I suppose I found them in the case book of some regiment perhaps 13 Hussars. They are only of interest in showing the incubation period of a bite on the muzzle’]

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]


12th Royal Lancers

Station: Secunderabad

Date: 1881

Troop: G

Number of Horse: 23

Sex: M

Age: 10

Disease: Rabies

Date of Admission: Nov 20

Date of Discharge: Dec 26th

Result: Destroyed

Record of the Case

Novber 20th.

Rabies. This mare was bitten on the muzzle & hind pasterns by a mad dog which ran though the lines at 4.30 this evening. The parts were well cauterized with Aug Mid: Put in a loose box & keep under observation

[November] 25th

Wounds healed

Dec 12th

No change

[December] 26th

Exhibited symptoms of mental derangement at 6.30 a.m. refused to be groomed, pawing, rolling, biting savagely at the near fore-limb & kicking with the near hind, frothing at the mouth, charging savagely, snorting, spasmodic contraction of muscles of neck. Every hour the symptoms became more marked & with greater violence. When getting down she stretched out her fore-limbs, & as soon as the chest touched the ground rolled over. Destroyed by order of a committee. No post-mortem made, but the head was burned & also the clothing & line gear.

Discharged, Destroyed.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/1 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Liver

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[Annotation “1878” and “The Lucknow Case of Hepatic Abscess”]

Horse A- 95 was a grey mare age 11 years 6 months. V.S Bred & with a deal of Arab Blood her height was 14 hands, 3 inches and she entered the service 19 Nov 1871 joining at New-gony[?] She was naturally very lightly built and of a highly nervous temperment so much so that it was with the greatest difficulty that one could get near her, for the purpose to examine her, she was an exceedingly willing worker always kept in good condition, and was placed in the hard centre of the gun as no one could ride her, her driver was exceedingly fond of her and paid the greatest care and attention to her this will complete her previous history.

She first came under my notice on the 13th May of the present year, when I admitted her into Hospital with simple Fever, an extract from the case book shows that she was dull and off her feed, Pulse full and 60 extremities cold she was ordered bran mashes, & green food with a little simple Febrifuge medicines consisting of Nitric Ether & Carbonate Ammonia on the 17th she remained the same, took very little food & was exceedingly dull, I then ordered Quinine to be given in Ʒi doses night and morning and to attend to her general nursing on the 20th there was a marked improvement and the medicine was continued[.] on the 21st she was discharged cured from that time she was not admitted again untill the 7th Sept and during the period was frequently noticed to be dull and to refuse her food for some little time, this was particularly the case after work however she did her duty cheerfully, on the 6th Sept she was noticed to be off her feed and was admitted as I have said before on the 7th, I was on leave at the time but the Farr. Sergt has described the symptoms to me as being those of Fever combined with derangement of the Liver he was led to this conclusion by the yellowness of the Mucous Membrane and of the Feaces, he


Diagnosed of the case as being one of congesting of the Liver, he accordingly administered 5 grs of Calomel morning and evening and applied a sinapism over the region of the Liver. I sent for Mr Garrett of the 13th Hussars, who ordered a Febrifuge draught consisting

of Aramitic[sic] Spirits Ammonia & Nitric Ether this she had twice a day up to the 24th during of the whole of this time she was exceedingly dull and weak and Mr Garrett expressed himself that she would die, on the 29th I saw her and she presented the following symptoms excessively weak and dull Pulse weak & 50 Respirations slightly accelerated 20 Mucous Membrane pale and very Anemic there was great wasting away[.] Urine of a brownish colour and very offensive, the Faeces were their natural colour and there was nothing to direct any attention to the Liver[.] I tested the urine for both Albuman and Bile but with negative results, I was perfectly at a loss to make out the case and refrained from forming an opinion, on the following day I examined her through the rectum in order to ascertain if I could detect any enlargement of the Kidneys Stone in the Bladder or any Deposits in the Mesentery this was all with negative results, I than[sic] turned my attention to the Chest and carefully Auscultated the Heart and Lungs both where[sic] perfectly healthy the only option that I ventured on given[sic] was, that there was some wasting disease of one or more of the Abdominal Organs whether that disease was Cancer or Melanotic

deposits in the Mesentery I was unable to say, such a thing as Absces[sic] in the Liver never entered into my head, in fact there were no symptoms at that time pointing to the Liver, however I ordered ℨij Sul Iron morning and evening[.] on the 3rd Oct her Feaces where[sic] again reported as being very offensive, I examined both the Urine for Albumen and Bile


but with negative results, the Feaces where dark in colour and had a deal of Mucous in them I attributed the colour to the Iron and lessened the dose to ℨi this 2 days after I entirely discontinued. On the 11th I stopped the Iron and ordered Arsnic[sic] in the form of  Lig Arsinials ℨiiij night and morning this on the 13th seemed to affect the bowels as Dirahoea[sic] was present I accordingly lessened the dose by ℨij and ordered Tinct Opii ℨij to be given with the dose this prevented the Arsnic passing of by the bowels, on the 15th the patient presented such a very Anaemic condition and such atrophy of the muscles of the body that I was anxious to see if in the horse you could tell the position and exact size of the Liver by percussion as can be done in the human subject[.] My object in doing this was not because my attention was directed to the Liver, but simply I had in this patient a good subject for the above experiment. I accordingly percussed the right side and to my surprise found the Liver greatly enlarged, it extended anteroily[sic] as far forward as the 9 rib posteriorly beyond the edges of the false ribs and inferior to the Sternum this I pointed out to the Farr. Sergt who was than present and expressed that opinion to W.V Plomney V.S R.H.A. who was than in the station. On the 16th there was a marked change for the worst the Respirations where ascelterated, Pulse quick and almost imperceptible and there was no doubt in my mind but that she was dying fast. On the 17th & 18th the above symptoms where aggravated the patient walked round the box refused food entirely very anxious expressions, countenance & tremors of the Muscles had commenced; corresponding to Sub Sulsus Tendinum of the human subject, she gradually sunk and died without a struggle at 3 o’clock on the morning of the 19th.


Post Mortem examination made 31/2 hours after death showed Rigormortis well marked Tympanic condition of the Abdomen, on the opening the Abdomen about 2 qts of deep yellow partially Inspissatated Pus escaped together with a quantity of Serum the transfurse[?] Colon and the Auterior extremity of the Caecum where in a state of acute congestion and there Peritoneum covering was inflamed. Adhesions had been thrown out and the right portion of double Colon was attached by recent Adhesions to the side of the chest[?] the Duodinim[sic] was extensively thickened and congisted[sic] the Parietal and Diaphragmatic Peritoneum were inflamed and adhesions and recent Lymph where thrown[?] out.

The Liver presented a mortal appearance was in every part adherent to the Diaphragm and of the posterior of the right lobe had a large cavoty[sic] whoes[sic] walls where thickened in some parts to the extent of 3 or 4 inches in others as thin as writing paper it was this Abscess whose contents had burst into the Abdominal Cavaty[sic] on removing the Liver it was found to weigh 20 lbs and ardly[sic] a square inch in any part of it was healthy, the Hepatic cells where swoolin[sic] & gorged with blood on marking a section there was marked Cirrhosis and in the right lobe alone 7 Absces where found in various stages of development the mottled colour which I have before spoken about was due to a convertion[sic] of Hepatic cells into cheesey material this is at first yellow in colour but gradually softening takes place which always commences in the centre and changes its colour into a white cream like fluid this is puss and is the first commencement of Hipatic Abscess this one description will answer for the whole Liver

at the very least there must have been 20 or 30 such Nuclei the foundation of future Abscess.


The walls of the Viscus where greatly thickened to the extent of 2 or 3 inches it presented nothing peculiar in its external appearance but on opening it the whole of the Cuticular portion was found thickened and presented a peculiar honeycomed[sic] appearance which we see in pericarditis, in colour it was of a dirty yellow the whole of these changes I atribute[sic] to Gastritis caused by the attempted perforation of the Stomach for the purpose of obtaining an outlet for the Abscess however perforation never took place hence the rupture of the Abscess into the Abdominal Cavity.

The Kidneys where healthy Spleen slightly enlarged. bladder healthy, Heart and Lungs both healthy.


In this case which is a very rear[sic] occurrence we have a remarkable example of an effort of nature to get rid of an offending substance the remarkable part was the obscure symptoms and the apparent absence of Abdominal pain it seems hard to reconcile ones mind to the effect that she could have suffered no pain from it considering the great structural changes of which took place. I forgot to say that on finding the Liver enlarged I ask the question if ever she layed down and I was told she did not but even in this there was nothing remarkable as many horses especially old ones never lay down at all[.] I also forgot to mention that early on the morning of the 9th inst she fell down in her box and remained down for 2 hours at the end of that time she got up herself this I atributed[sic] to her sleeping while standing and falling I feel shure[sic] that the Abscess was not ruptured than.


The cause is equally obscure she never received any injury and was but on one occasion which has been described admitted into Hospital.

[Transcription by Claudia Watts, KCL History, April 2019]

FS/2/2/2/1/4 – Selected papers from veterinary case notes relating to the Liver and Spleen

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